There are many ways to prevent marine biofouling, which can be divided into three major categories: mechanical, physical and chemical.
Mechanical cleaning of ships and marine facilities on a regular basis, including underwater mechanical removal and ship docking and cleaning.
1) Impressed current method: using a conductive polymer as a coating, adding a weak current, or directly adding a weak current to the metal surface of the hull, using a conductive coating as an anode, and a part of the bottom of the ship that is in contact with seawater as a cathode, when a small current When passed, seawater electrolysis produces hypochlorite ions that kill or prevent the attachment of larvae and spores of marine attachment organisms. Since the concentration of hypochlorite ions produced in seawater is lower than that in tap water, it does not pollute the environment.
2 ) Ultrasonic method: Ultrasonic interference with the attachment of marine organisms.
3) Radiation method: destroy and kill marine attached organisms with materials that generate radiation.
3. Chemical methods
1 ) Chlorine gas: Chlorine gas is passed through the seawater area near the protected surface, and the marine attached organism is poisoned with chlorine gas.
2 ) Low surface energy materials: The surface of the protected surface is covered with a low surface free energy (low surface tension) material, making it difficult for marine attached organisms to adhere or adhere easily.
3 ) protective coating: anti-fouling with a protective coating. The antifouling paint contains a marine biotoxic agent such as a biocide or a mildewproof agent, and is coated on the surface which needs antifouling under the coating of the base material, and forms a protective coating after curing. Chemicals in the coating can kill attached organisms and prevent the growth of attached organisms. The use of antifouling coatings is currently the mainstream antifouling method.
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